Referanser ME/CFS

1 Wyller V.B. (2007). The Chronic Fatigue Syndrome – An Update. Acta Neurol Scand Suppl 187: 7–14.

2 Beard G. (1869). Neurasthenia, or Nervous Exhaustion. Boston Med Surg J 1: 217–221.

3 Gilliam A. (1938). Epidemiological Study on an Epidemic, Diagnosed as Poliomyelitis, Occurring Among the Personnel of Los Angeles County General Hospital During the Summer of 1934. United States Treasury Department Public Health Service Public Health Bulletin 240: 1–90.

4 Patarca-Montero R (2004). Medical Etiology, Assessment, and Treatment of Chronic Fatigue and Malaise. London: Haworth Press.

5 Melvin Ramsay A. (1986). Postviral Fatigue Syndrome. The Saga of Royal Free Disease. London: Gower.

6 Pellew R.A., Miles J.A. (1955). Further Investigations on a Disease Resembling Poliomyelitis Seen in Adelaide. Med J Aust 2 (13): 480–482.

7 Wallis A. (1957). An Investigation Into an Unusual Illness Seen in Epidemic and Sporadic Form in a General Practice in Cumberland in 1955 and Subsequent Years. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University.

8 Richardson J. (2002). Myalgic Encephalomyelitis: Guidelines for Doctors. J Chron Fatigue Syndr 10 (1): 65–80.

9 Carruthers B.M., van de Sande, M.I. De Meirleir K.L. et al. (2011). Myalgic Encephalomyelitis: International Consensus Criteria. J Intern Med 270 (4): 327–338.

10 Gallagher A.M., Thomas J.M., Hamilton W.T. et al. (2004). Incidence of fatigue symptoms and diagnoses presenting in UK primary care from 1990 to 2001. J R Soc Med 97 (12): 571–575.

11 Poeschla B., Strachan E., Dansie E., et al. (2013). Chronic Fatigue and Personality: A Twin Study of Causal Pathways and Shared Liabilities. Ann Behav Med 45 (3): 289–298.

12 Cifuentes R.A., Barreto E. (2011). Supervised Selection of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Biomedica 31 (4): 613–621.

13 Smith A.K., Fang H., Whistler T. et al. (2011). Convergent Genomic Studies Identify Association Of GRIK2 and NPAS2 with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Neuropsychobiol 64 (4): 183–194.

14 Kato K., Sullivan P.F., Evengard B., Pedersen N.L. (2006). Premorbid Predictors of Chronic Fatigue. Arch Gen Psychiatry 63 (11): 1267–1272.

15 Heim C., Wagner D., Maloney E. et al. Early Adverse Experience and Risk for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Arch Gen Psychiatry 63 (11): 1258–1266.

16 Dansie E., Heppner P., Furberg H. et al. (2012). The Comorbidity of SelfReported Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Traumatic Symptoms. Psychosomatics 53 (3): 250–257. 17 Salit I.E. (1997).

17 Precipitating Factors for the Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. J Psychiatric Res 31 (1): 59–65.

18 Mueller C, Lin JC, Sheriff S, Maudsley AA, Younger JW. Evidence of widespread metabolite abnormalities in Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome: assessment with whole-brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Brain Imaging Behav. 2020;14(2):562-572. doi:10.1007/s11682-018-0029-4.

19 Hollingsworth K.G., Jones D.E., Taylor R. et al. (2010). Impaired Cardiovascular Response to Standing in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Eur J Clin Invest 40 (7): 608–615.

20 Streeten D.H., Thomas D., Bell D.S. (2000). The roles of Orthostatic Hypotension, Orthostatic Tachycardia, and Subnormal Erythrocyte Volume in the Pathogenesis of the Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Am J Med Sci 320 (1): 1–8.

21 Wyller V.B., Eriksen H.R., Malterud K. (2009). Can Sustained Arousal Explain the Chronic Fatigue Syndrome? Behavioral and Brain Functions. BBF 5: 10.

22 Papadopoulos A.S., Cleare A.J. (2011). Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Dysfunction in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Nat Rev Endocrinol 8 (1): 22–32.

23 Snell C.R., Stevens S.R., Davenport T.E., Van Ness J.M. (2013). Discriminative Validity of Metabolic and Workload Measurements for Identifying People with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Phys Ther 93 (11): 1484–1492.

24 Newton D.J., Kennedy G., Chan K.K. et al. (2011). Large and Small Artery Endothelial Dysfunction In Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Int J Cardiol 153 (3): 335–336.

25 Klimas N.G., Koneru A.O. (2007). Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Inflammation, Immune Function, and Neuroendocrine Interactions. Curr Rheumatol Rep 9 (6): 482–487.

26 Aspler A.L., Bolshin C., Vernon S.D., Broderick G. (2008). Evidence of Inflammatory Immune Signaling in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Pilot Study of Gene Expression in Peripheral Blood. Behav Brain Funct 4: 44.

27 Broderick G., Fuite J., Kreitz A. et al. (2010). A Formal Analysis of Cytokine Networks in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Brain Behav Immun 24 (7): 1209–1217.

28 Pall M.L., Satterlee J.D. (2001). Elevated Nitric Oxide/Peroxynitrite Mechanism for the Common Etiology of Multiple Chemical Sensitivity, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Ann N Y Acad Sci 933: 323–329.

29 Fluge O., Bruland O., Risa K. et al. (2011). Benefit from B-Lymphocyte Depletion Using the Anti-CD20 Antibody Rituximab in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. A Double-Blind and Placebo-Controlled Study. PLoS One 6 (10): E26358.

30 Carruthers B.M., van de Sande, M.I. De Meirleir K.L. et al. (2012). Myalgisk encefalomyelitt: Internasjonale konsensuskriterier. Oslo: Helsedirektoratet.

31 Reeves W.C., Wagner D., Nisenbaum R. et al. (2005). Chronic Fatigue Syndrome A Clinical Empirical Approach to Its Definition and Study. BMC Medicine 3: 19.

32 Carruthers B.M., Jain A.K., De Meirleir K.L. et al. (2003). Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Clinical Working Case Definition, Diagnostic and Treatments Protocols. J Chron Fatigue Syndrome 11: 7–115.

33 Whiting P., Bganall A.M., Sowden A.J. et al. (2001). Interventions for the Treatment and Management of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Systematic Review. JAMA. 286 (11): 1360–1368.

34 White A.T., Light A.R., Hughen R.W. et al. (2012). Differences in MetaboliteDetecting, Adrenergic, and Immune Gene Expression After Moderate Exercise in Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Patients with Multiple Sclerosis, and Healthy Controls. Psychosom Med 74 (1): 46–54.

35 Jones D.E., Hollingsworth K.G., Jakovlevic D.G. et al. (2012). Loss of Capacity to Recover from Acidosis on Repeat Exercise in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Case-Control Study. Eur J Clin Invest 42 (2): 186–194.

36 White P.D., Goldsmith K.A., Johnson A.L et al. (2011). Comparison of Adaptive Pacing Therapy, Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, Graded Exercise Therapy, and Specialist Medical Care for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (PACE): A Randomised Trial. Lancet 377 (9768): 823–836.

37 Goudsmit E.M., Stouten B., Howes S. (2009). Illness Intrusiveness in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis: An Exploratory Study. J Health Psychol 14 (2): 215–221.

38 Shepherd C. (2006). The Debate: Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Br J Nurs 15 (12): 662–669.

39 Straus S.E. (2004). Pharmacotherapy of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Another Gallant Attempt. JAMA 292 (10): 1234–1235.

40 McDermott C., Richards S.C., Thomas P.W. et al. (2006). A Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial of a Natural Killer Cell Stimulant (Biobran MGN-3) in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. QJM 99 (7): 461–468.

41 Blacker C.V., Greenwood D.T., Wesnes K.A. et al. (2004). Effect of Galantamine Hydrobromide in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial. JAMA 292 (10): 1195–1204.

42 DuBois R.E. (1986). Gamma Globulin Therapy for Chronic Mononucleosis Syndrome. AIDS Res, 2 Suppl 1: S191–195.

43 Peterson P.K., Shepard J., Macres al. (1990). A Controlled Trial of Intravenous Immunoglobulin G in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Am J Med 89 (5): 554–560.

44 Straus S.E., Dale J.K., Tobi M. et al. (1988). Acyclovir Treatment of the Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Lack of Efficacy in a Placebo-Controlled Trial. N Engl J Med 319 (26): 1692–1698.

45 Vercoulen J.H., Swanink C.M., Zitman F.G. et al. (1996). Randomised, DoubleBlind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Fluoxetine in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Lancet 347 (9005): 858–861.

46 Reid S., Chalder T., Cleare A. et al. (2000). Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. BMJ 320 (7230): 292–296.

47 Randall D.C., Cafferty F.H., Shneerson J.M. et al. (2005). Chronic Treatment with Modafinil May Not Be Beneficial in Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. J Psychopharmacol 19 (6): 647–660.

48 Blockmans D., Perssons P., Van Houdenhove B., Bobbaers H. (2006). Does Methylphenidate Reduce the Symptoms of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome? Am J Med 119 (2): 167 e23–3.

49 McKenzie R., O’Fallon A., Dale J. et al., (1998). Low-Dose Hydrocortisone for Treatment of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial. JAMA 280 (12): 1061–1066.

50 Lapp C.W., Cheney P.R. (1995). Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Ann Intern Medicine 123 (1): 74–75.

51 Chew-Graham C., Dowrick C., Wearden A. et al. (2010). Making the Diagnosis of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalitis in Primary Care: A Qualitative Study. BMC Fam Pract 11: 16.

52 Joyce J., Hotopf M., Wessely S. (1997). The Prognosis of Chronic Fatigue and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Systematic Review. QJM 90 (3): 223–233.

53 Brown M.M., Bell D.S., Jason L.A. et al., (2012). Understanding Long-Term Outcomes of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. J Clin Psychol 68 (9): 1028–1035.

54 Jason L.A., Taylor R.R., Kennedy C.L. et al., (2002).A Factor Analysis of Chronic Fatigue Symptoms in a Community-Based Sample. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 37 (4): 183–189.

55 Loebel M, Grabowski P, Heidecke H et al. Antibodies to β adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors in patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Brain Behav Immun 2016; 52: 32 – 9.

  1. Fluge Ø, Mella O, Bruland O et al. Metabolic profiling indicates impaired pyruvate dehydrogenase function in myalgic encephalopathy/chronic fati-

gue syndrome.JCllnsight 2016;1; e89376.

  1. Cabanas H, Muraki K, Balinas C, Eaton-Fitch N, Staines D, Marshall-Gradisnik S. Validation of impaired Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 3 ion channel activity in natural killer cells from Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/ Myalgic Encephalomyelitis patients. Mol Med. 2019;25(1):14. Published 2019 Apr 23.
  2. Esfandyarpour, A. Kashi, M. Nemat-Gorgani, J. Wilhelmy, R. W. Davis. A nanoelectronics-blood-based diagnostic biomarker for myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences May 2019, 116 (21) 10250-10257
  3. Germain A, Ruppert D, Levine SM, Hanson MR. Metabolic profiling of a myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome discovery cohort reveals disturbances in fatty acid and lipid metabolism. Mol Biosyst. 2017;13(2):371–379. doi:10.1039/c6mb00600k

Referanser borreliose

4.Dessau, R.B., et al., Utilization of serology for the diagnosis of suspected Lyme borreliosis in Denmark: survey of patients seen in general practice. BMC Infect Dis, 2010. 10: p. 317.

5.Hansen, K. and A.M. Lebech, The clinical and epidemiological profile of Lyme neuroborreliosis in Denmark 1985-1990. A prospective study of 187 patients with Borrelia burgdorferi specific intrathecal antibody production. Brain, 1992. 115 ( Pt 2): p. 399-423.

6.Tsai, T., Mandell, G.L., Bennett, J.E., Dolin, R., Mandell, Douglas and Bennett’s principles and practice of infectious diseases2000, Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone.

7.Wilske, B., V. Fingerle, and U. Schulte-Spechtel, Microbiological and serological diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol, 2007. 49(1): p. 13-21.

8.Skarpaas, T., et al., Sensitivity and specificity of a commercial C6 peptide enzyme immuno assay in diagnosis of acute Lyme neuroborreliosis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis, 2007. 26(9): p. 675-7.

9.Mygland, A., T. Skarpaas, and U. Ljostad, Chronic polyneuropathy and Lyme disease. Eur J Neurol, 2006. 13(11): p. 1213-5.

10.Mygland, A., et al., EFNS guidelines on the diagnosis and management of European Lyme neuroborreliosis. Eur J Neurol, 2010. 17(1): p. 8-16, e1-4.

11.Control, C.f.D. Lyme disease diagnosis. 2009; Available from:

12.Ljostad, U., et al., Oral doxycycline versus intravenous ceftriaxone for European Lyme neuroborreliosis: a multicentre, non-inferiority, double-blind, randomised trial. Lancet Neurol, 2008. 7(8): p. 690-5.

13.Eldoen, G., et al., (Lyme neuroborreliosis in More and Romsdal). Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen, 2001. 121(17): p. 2008-11.

14.Feder, H.M., Jr., et al., A critical appraisal of "chronic Lyme disease". N Engl J Med, 2007. 357(14): p. 1422-30.

15.Fallon, B.A., et al., A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of repeated IV antibiotic therapy for Lyme encephalopathy. Neurology, 2008. 70(13): p. 992-1003.

  1. Rupprecht TA, Lechner C, Tumani H, Fingerle V. [CXCL13: a biomarker for acute Lyme neuroborreliosis: investigation of the predictive value in the clinical routine]. Nervenarzt. 2014 Apr;85(4):459-64.